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... states, and Somalia in particular. The findings of this study will inform Somali policymakers, the Somali populace, the international community, and academia concerning the performance and the practical ...
... is either virtually plenary or virtually nugatory. I explore part of the vast middle ground. I assume as true Justice Scalia’s key argument in Bond v. United States, that implementing a treaty cannot be ...
... of welfare state reforms on labor market conditions has been a leading cause of the rise of populism. To operationalize this claim, Esping-Andersen’s decommodification index is used in the article, drawing ...
... In the first part (section 2), this paper briefly explores the importance of subnational constitutions in multinational states, highlighting how subnational constitutions could incorporate cultural fundamental ...
... are still a reality, as a margin of discretion persists for Member States, aimed at maintaining a high level of decentralisation, particularly where issues related to national policies and more (nation) ...
... of the constitutional constraints surrounding the positions of the Speakers and Presidents of the European and Member States’ (MS) Parliaments, with a considerable variety in terms of powers and decision-making ...
The aim of involving state members in reforming federal constitutions is to guarantee them the autonomy that they have been constitutionally granted. It also prevents reform from being carried out unilaterally ...
... contribute to joint parliamentary scrutiny by involving both the EP and the national parliaments of EU member states. ...
... once common throughout Europe. Hence calls for major reform are commonplace. However successful changes have been piecemeal and rare. Meanwhile the UK is not federal, but is nonetheless a ‘union state’, ...
Belgium was established in 1830 as a unitary state with a bicameral parliament, with symmetrical powers for the upper and the lower house. While federalism and bicameralism are often considered a pair, ...
Contemporary U.S. federalism particularly since the late1960s has evolved over the course of pluralism alternating exercisable governmental powers between the federal and state governments. The complexity ...
... Austria. In this issue, the developments of European bicameral parliaments in (quasi-)federal states are dealt with as well as the political impact of shared rule and alternative models to second chambers. ...
... of those European states that have a federal or quasi-federal character (Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom). Second, the paper addresses ...
In federal and regionalised states, bicameralism constitutes shared rule between levels of governments. At the same time, second chambers serve as a safeguard protecting self-rule of decentralised governments ...
... common option, bicameralism is generally adopted in more populous countries and/or States with strong territorial autonomies. As a matter of fact, among varieties of bicameralism, the most common is characterized ...
... northern regions of Veneto and Lombardia to seek additional forms and conditions of autonomy within the Italian regional state as painted by the Constitution after the 2001 reform. By adopting mainly an ...
... question. Intergovernmentalist theory posits that it is sufficiently legitimised, indirectly, by the member state governments. Constructivist research, on the other hand, suggests that socialisation might ...
The Treaty of Lisbon introduced a new system of weighted votes in the Council, which radically departs from the principles on which the distribution of votes between the Member States of the EU was based ...
19. Reconstructing Social Dialogue
(Mariana Pinto Ramos/Essay)
The European Social Dialogue, and its output, the European collective agreements, are intended to implement minimum standards of working conditions that bind all Member-States, in a logic of legal harmonisation ...
20. From the Unitary Patent Package to a Federal EU Patent Law
(Juliana Almeida and Guilherme Oliveira e Costa/Essay)
... of the Member-States, with a single application. This would simplify the patent protection system, making it easier, less costly and more secure, and would facilitate access to the internal market and ...
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